My research focus has been on the public health impact, risk factors, and treatments of the main causes of blindness in the developed and developing world: cataracts, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration. Since my last review, I have continued to publish on findings from the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study (OHTS), the Incidence of Age-Related Macular Degeneration (IAMD), the Thessaloniki Eye Study (TES), and the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures- Eye Study (SOF-ES). In addition, I have begun investigating sources of visual impairment in children along with potential interventions (Scientific Paper #108 and Gerald Oppenheimer Family Foundation Center for Prevention of Eye Disease grant) as well as potential genetic risk factors for age-related macular degeneration (Scientific Paper #84 and American Health Assistance Foundation and National Eye Institute grants) and glaucoma (Gerald Oppenheimer Family Foundation Center for Prevention of Eye Disease grant). I reported that even for elderly women with age-related macular degeneration, quitting smoking can slow down the development of the late stages of the disease (Scientific Paper #95). I also guided a research effort showing that age-related macular degeneration impacts vision-specific quality of life in elderly women (Scientific Paper #101). In addition, with my co-authors, I have expanded the risk model for ocular hypertension to include mortality risk (Scientific Paper # 94) and have investigated when it is appropriate to treat glaucoma suspects (Scientific Paper #96). Another area of continued interest is the analysis and interpretation of data from a population-based study in Thessaloniki, Greece led by Fotis Topouzis, MD, who was a clinical and research fellow with me in 1997-1998. As the first large-scale, population-based study in Greece, TES has continued to provide a wealth of information regarding the prevalence of glaucoma, especially pseudoexfoliative glaucoma, in a Greek population (Scientific Papers # 90, 104 and 110). My clinical practice, which is focused primarily on glaucoma treatment, has provided me with numerous opportunities and collaborations to add to the clinical research literature on glaucoma (Scientific Papers # 78, 83, 93, 98, 103, 105, 107, and 109). Recent studies have reported on the adverse consequences of glaucoma surgeries (Scientific Papers #78, 83, 98 and 103) and potentially modifiable prognostic factors for the progression of glaucoma (Scientific Papers # 93, 105, and 109). In addition, a recent publication with my colleagues presents our work on a new way of detecting glaucomatous damage with visual field testing (Scientific Paper #107).